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Costa, D., Kahn, M. (2010). Health, Wartime Stress, and Unit Cohesion: Evidence from Union Army Veterans. Demography 47(1): 45-66.

We fi nd that Union Army veterans of the American Civil War who faced greater wartime stress (as measured by higher battlefi eld mortality rates) experienced higher mortality rates at older ages, but that men who were from more cohesive companies were statistically signifi cantly less likely to be affected by wartime stress. Our results hold for overall mortality, mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke, and new diagnoses of arteriosclerosis. Our fi ndings represent one of the fi rst long-run health follow-ups of the interaction between stress and social networks in a human population in which both stress and social networks are arguably exogenous.


Costa, Dora

Dora Costa is Professor of Economics at the Department of Economics of the University of California Los Angeles.

Kahn, Matthew

Matthew E. Kahn is a Professor at the UCLA Institute of the Environment, the Department of Economics, and the Department of Public Policy. He is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. Before joining the UCLA faculty in January 2007, he taught at Columbia and the...

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