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Kraut, Robert

I started my career as a traditional social psychologist, but working in the telecommunications industry for twelve years shifted my focus from disciplines to problems. As a researcher, I have broad interests in the design and social impact of information technologies in small groups, in the home, and in organizations.

I conduct research in five major areas:

  • Online communities
  • Everyday use of the Internet
  • Collaboration in small work groups.
  • Technology and conversation
  • Computers in organizations

My research in a specific area first examines in detail the challenges individuals, groups, and organizations face in performing social tasks. This empirical research can inform the design of new technology to meet some of these challenges. Here I collaborate with computer scientists and engineers. The research comes full circle when we evaluate the usefulness of the new technology.

I teach courses in these topics, including undergraduate, masters, and Ph.D. level courses in communication, computer supported cooperative work, and organizational computing.

Articles

Online communities

Zhu, H., Kraut, R. E., & Kittur, A. (Under review). Doing What Needs To Be Done: Effects of Goals in Self-Governed Online Production Groups . [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & Resnick, P. In press). Evidence-based social design: Mining the social sciences to build online communities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,. Prepublication drafts are available on the book page.

Ren, Y., & Kraut, R. E. (Under review). A simulation for designing online community: Member motivation, contribution, and discussion moderation. [PDF]

Wang, X., Kraut, R. E., Butler, B., Burke, M., & Joyce, E. (Under review). A Relationship Model of Online Communities. [PDF]

Ren, Y., Harper, M., Drenner, S., Kiesler, S., Terveen, L., Riedl, J., et al. (Under review). Building attachment to online communities: Design principles for identity and bonds. Unpublished manuscript. [PDF]

Choi, B., Kraut, R. E., & Fichman, M. Under review). Matching people and groups: An exploratory study of recruitment and selection in online games.. [PDF]

Burke, M. & Kraut, R. (2010). Membership Claims and Requests: Conversation-Level Newcomer Socialization Strategies in Online groups. Small Group Research, 4(1), 4-40. [PDF]

Zhu, H., Kraut, R. E., Kittur, A., & Wang, Y.-C. (2011). Identifying Shared Leadership in Wikipedia ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM. [PDF]

Farzan, R., Dabbish, L., Kraut, R. E., & Postmes, T. (2011). Increasing Commitment in Online Communities via Building Social Attachment CSCW, 2011: Proceedings, ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work. New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Hsieh, G., Hudson, S. E., & Kraut, R. E. (2011). Donate for Credibility: How Contribution Incentives Can Improve Credibility CHI'2011: Proceedings of the ACM. [PDF]

7. Hsieh, G., Kraut, R. E., & Hudson, S. (2010). Why pay. Exploring how financial incentives are used for questions and answers CHI'10: Proceedings, ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 305-314). New York: ACM Press[PDF]

Kittur, A., & Kraut, R. E. (2010). Beyond Wikipedia: Coordination and Conflict in Online Production Groups CSCW 2010: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. (pp. 215-224). NY, New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Shklovski, I., Burke, M., Kiesler, S., & Kraut, R. (2010). Technology adoption and use in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(8), 1228.

Choi, B. R., Alexander, K., Kraut, R. E., & Levine, J. M. (2010). Socialization Tactics in Wikipedia and Their Effects CSCW'10: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 107-116 ). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Burke, M., Kraut, R. E., & Williams, D. (2010). Social Use of Computer-Mediated Communication by Adults on the Autism Spectrum. CSCW'2010: Proceedings of the international conference on computer-supported cooperative work (pp. 425-434). New York, NY: ACM Press. [PDF]

Aleahmad, T., Aleven, V., & Kraut, R. E. (2009). Creating a Corpus of Targeted Learning Resources with a Web-Based Open Authoring Tool., IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2(1), 3-9. [PDF]

Kittur, A., Pendleton, B., & Kraut, R. E. (2009). Herding the Cats: The Influence of Groups in Coordinating Peer Production WikiSym 2009: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration. New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Halfaker, A., Kittur, A., Kraut, R., & Riedl, J. (2009). A Jury of Your Peers: Quality, Experience and Ownership in Wikipedia WikiSym 2009: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration. New York: ACM Pre ss. [PDF]

Kittur, A., Lee, B., & Kraut, R. E. (2009). Coordination in Collective Intelligence: The Role of Team Structure and Task Interdependence CHI 2009: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1495-1504 ). NY: ACM Press [PDF]

Burke, M., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Mopping up: Modeling Wikipedia promotion processes. In CSCW 2008: Proceedings of the ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work. New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Burke, M., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Mind your p’s and q’s: When politeness helps and hurts in online communities. In CSCW'08: ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work. New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Kittur, A., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Harnessing the wisdom of crowds in Wikipedia: Quality through coordination. In CSCW'08: Proceedings of the ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work. New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Aleahmad, T., Aleven, V., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Open community authoring of worked example problems ICLS'08: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on International conference for the learning sciences (Vol. 3, pp. 216 - 227). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Burke, M., Joyce, E., Kim, T., Anand, V., & Kraut, R. E. (2007). Introductions and requests: Rhetorical strategies that elicit community response. In C. Steinfield, B. Pentland, M. Ackerman & N. Contractor (Eds.), Communities and technologies 2007: Proceedings of the third communities and technologies conference. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.[PDF]

Butler, B., Sproull, L., Kiesler, S., & Kraut, R. (2007). Community effort in online groups: Who does the work and why? In S. Weisband. (Ed.), Leadership at a distance. (pp. 171-194). Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PDF]

Harper, F., Frankowski, D., Drenner, S., Yuqing Ren, Kiesler, S., Terveen, L., et al. (2007). Talk amongst yourselves: Inviting users to participate in online conversations. In IUI 2007: Proceedings of the ACM conference on intelligent user interfaces (pp. 62 - 71). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Ren, Y., Kraut, R. E., & Kiesler, S. (2007). Applying common identity and bond theory to the design of online communities. Organizational Studies, 28(3), 379-410. [PDF]

Seay, A. F., & Kraut, R. E. (2007). Project massive: Self-regulation and problematic use of online gaming. In CHI 2007: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 829 - 838). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Joyce, E., & Kraut, R. E. (2006). Predicting continued participation in newsgroups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(3), 723-747. [HTML]

Arguello, J., Butler, B. S., Joyce, L., Kraut, R., Ling, K. S., Rosé, C. P., et al. (2006). Talk to me: Foundations for successful individual-group interactions in online communities. In CHI 2006: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human-factors in computing systems (pp. 959 - 968). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Rashid, A., Ling, K., Kraut, R., & Riedl, J. (2006). Motivating participations by displaying the value of contribtuion. In CHI 2006: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human-factors in Computing systems (pp. 955 - 958). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Ling, K., Beenen, G., Ludford, P. J., Wang, X., Chang, K., Li, X., Cosley, D. Frankowski, D., Terveen, L., Rashid, A., Resnick, P., Kraut, R. (2005). Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 10(4), np. [HTML]

Beenen, G., Ling, K., Wang, X., Chang, K., Frankowski, D., Resnick, P. & Kraut, R. (2004). Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities. CSCW'04: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. p. 212-221. NY: ACM Press. [PDF]

Everyday use of the Internet

Burke, M., Kraut, R. E., & Marlow, C. (In press). Social capital on Facebook: Differentiating uses and users CHI'2011: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.[PDF]

Shklovski, I., Burke, M., Kiesler, S., & Kraut, R. (2010). Technology adoption and use in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(8), 1228-1246 [PDF].

Bessière, K., Pressman, S., Kiesler, S., & Kraut, R.E. (2010). Effects of Internet use on health and depression: A longitudinal study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12, 1, e6. [HTML]

Bessière, K., Kiesler, S., Kraut, R. E., & Boneva, B. (2008). Effects of Internet use and social resources on changes in depression. Information, Communication & Society, 11(1), 47-70. [PDF]

Shklovski, I., Kraut, R. E., & Cummings, J. (2008). Keeping in touch by technology: Maintaining friendships after a residential move. In CHI'08: Proceeding of the ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 807-816). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Shklovski, I., Kraut, R., & Cummings, J. (2006). Routine patterns of Internet use and psychological well-being: A complex interaction. In CHI 2006: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human-factors in computing systems. New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Brynin, M., & Kraut, R. E. (2006). Social studies of domestic information and communication. In R. E. Kraut, M. Brynin & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology (pp. 3-20). New York: Oxford University Press[PDF]

Cummings, J., Lee, J., & Kraut, R. (2006). Communication technology and friends during the transition from high school to college. In Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology (pp. 265-278). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., & Shklovski, I. (2006). Examining the impact of Internet use on TV viewing: Details make a difference. In R. E. Kraut, M. Brynin & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology (pp. 70-83). New: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Boneva, B. S., Quinn, A., Kraut, R. E., Kiesler, S., & Shklovski, I. (2006). Teenage communication in the instant messaging era. In R. Kraut, M. Brynin & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology (pp. 201-218). New York: Oxford University Press.. [PDF]

Shklovski, I., Kiesler, S., & Kraut, R. (2006). The Internet and social interaction: A meta-analysis and critique of studies, 1995-2003. In R. Kraut, M. Brynin & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology (pp. 251-264). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Shklovski, I., Kraut, R. E. & Rainie, L., (2004). The Internet and Social Relationships: Contrasting Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. [HTML]

Kraut, R. E., & Kiesler, S. (2003, summer). The social impact of Internet use. Psychological Science Agenda, 8-10. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Olson, J., Manaji, M., Bruckman, A., Cohen, J. & Couper, M. (2003). Psychological Research Online: Opportunities and Challenges. American Psychologist, 59(2), 105-117. [PDF]

Frohlich, D. M., & Kraut, R. (2003). The social context of home computing. In R. Harper (Ed.), Inside the smart home (pp. 127-162). London: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J . N., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. M. (2002). Internet paradox revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 49-74. [PDF]

Cummings, J., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108. [PDF]

Boneva, B., Kraut, R., & Frohlich, D. (2001). Using e-mail for personal relationships: The difference gender makes. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 530-549. [PDF]

Cummings, J. N., & Kraut, R. (2002). Domesticating computers and the Internet. The Information Society, 18(3), 1-18.. [PDF]

Kiesler, S., Kraut, R., Cummings, J., Boneva, B., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (2002). Internet evolution and social impact. In P. B. Lowry, J. O. Cherrington, & R. J. Watson (Eds.), The E-Business Handbook. (pp. 189-201). NY: CRC Press. [PDF]

Kiesler, S. Lundmark, V., Zdaniuk, B., & Kraut, R., (2000) Troubles with the Internet: The dynamics of help at home. Human Computer Interaction, 15(4), 223-352. [PDF]

Kraut, R., Mukhopadhyay, T., Szczypula, J., Kiesler, S., & Scherlis, B. (1999). Information and communication: Alternative uses of the Internet in households. Information Systems Research 10(4), 287-303. [PDF]

Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P., Kraut, R., & Gross, E. (2001). The impact of computer use on children's and adolescents' development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(1), 7-30.[PDF]

Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R. E., Greenfield, P., & Gross, E. (Spring 2000). The impact of home computer use on children's activities and development. In M. K. Shields (Ed.), The Future of Children: Children and Computer Technology, Vol. 10, 123-144. [PDF]

Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R. E., Greenfield, P., & Gross, E. (2000). New forms of electronic media: Impact of interactive games and the Internet on cognition, socialization, and behavior. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.,) Handbook of Children and the Media. Pp. 73-99. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Kiesler, S. & Kraut, R. (1999). Internet use and ties that bind. American Psychologist,54(9), 783-784. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Scherlis, W., Patterson, M., Kiesler, S. & Mukhopadhyay, T. (1998). Social impact of the Internet: What does it mean? Communications of the ACM, 41(12), 21-22. [PDF]

Kraut, R. Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S, Mukophadhyay,T & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist. 53 (9), 10171-031. [PDF]

Kiesler, S., Kraut, R., Lundmark, V., Scherlis, W., & Mukhopadhyay, T. (1997, March 24-27) Usability, help desk calls, and residential Internet usage. Proceedings of the CHI '97 Conference (Atlanta, GA,), New York: ACM.

Kraut, R. E. (1996, Dec.). The Internet@Home: Introduction to the special section on the new home computing. Communications of the ACM.

Kraut, R. E., Scherlis, W, Mukhopadhyay, T., Manning, J., Kiesler, S. (1996, Dec.). HomeNet: A field trial of residential Internet services. Communications of the ACM. [PDF]

Collaboration in work groups

Wainer, J., Dabbish, L., & Kraut, R. (2011). Should I open this email? Inbox-level cues, curiosity and attention to email CHI'2011: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors in computing systems NY: ACM Press. [PDF]

Hua, Y., Loftness, V., Kraut, R. E., & Powell, K. M. (2010). Workplace collaborative space layout typology and occupant perception of collaboration environment. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 37, 429-448. [PDF]

Dabbish, L., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Awareness displays and social motivation for coordinating communication. Information Systems Research, 19(2), 221-238. [PDF]

Hsieh, G., Kraut, R. E., Hudson, S. E., & Weber, R. (2008). Can Markets Help?: Applying Market Mechanisms to Improve Synchronous Communication CSCW'8: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. New York: ACM Press [PDF].

Hsieh, G., Lai, J., Hudson, S. E., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Using tags to assist near-synchronous communication. In CHI'08: Proceeding of the ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 223-226). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Espinosa, A., Slaughter, S., Kraut, R. E., & Herbsleb, J. (2007). Familiarity and team performance in geographically distributed software development. Organization Science, 18(4), 613-630. [PDF]

Espinosa, J. A., Slaughter, S. A., Herbsleb, J. D., & Kraut, R. E. (2007). Team knowledge and coordination in geographically distributed software development. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(1), 135-169. [PDF]

Ankolekar, A., Sycara, K., Herbsleb, J., Kraut, R., & Welty, C. (2006). Supporting online problem solving communities with the semantic web. In Proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 575-584). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Sunder, S., Telang, R., & Morris, J. (2005). Pricing electronic mail to solve the problem of spam. Human Computer Interaction, 20, 195-223. [PDF]

Dabbish, L. & Kraut, R. E (2004) Controlling Interruptions: Awareness Displays and Social. CSCW'04: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. p. 182-191. NY: ACM Press. [PDF]

Dabbish, L., & Kraut, R. (2003). Awareness displays and interruption in teams. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Seattle, WA. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Sunder, S., Morris, J., Telang, R., Filer, D., & Cronin, M. (2002). Markets for attention: Will postage for email help?, Proceedings, Computer Supported Cooperative Work. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. [PDF]

Espinosa, J. A., Kraut, R. E., Slaughter, S. A., Lerch, J. F., Herbsleb, J. D., & Mockus, A. (2002, December). Shared mental models, familiarity and coordination: A multi-method study of distributed software teams. Paper presented at the International Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain. [PDF]

Espinosa, J. A., Carley, K. M., Kraut, R. E., Lerch, F. J., & Fussell, S. R. (2002, August 27). The effect of task knowledge similarity and distribution on asynchronous team coordination and performance: Empirical evidence from decision teams. Paper presented at the Cognitive Research (CORE) Workshop, International Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain. [PDF]

Espinosa, A., Lerch, J., & Kraut, R. (2004). Explicit vs. implicit coordination mechanisms and task dependencies: One size does not fit all. In E. Salas & S. M. Fiore (Eds.), Team cognition: Process and performance at the inter- and intra-individual level. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. (2003). Applying social psychological theory to the problems of group work. In J. Carroll (Ed.). HCI Models, Theories and Frameworks: Toward A Multidisciplinary Science (p. 325-356). New Yok: Morgan Kaufman [PDF]

Fussell, S. R., Kraut, R. E., & Lerch, F. J. (Under review). Coordination in Teams: Evidence from a Simulated Management Game Journal of Organizational Behavior. [PDF]

Espinosa, A., Cadiz, J., Rico-Gutierrez, L., Kraut, R., Scherlis, W., & Lautenbacher, G. (2000). Coming to the wrong decision quickly: why awareness tools must be matched with appropriate tasks. Proceedings of the CHI 2000 conference on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 392-399). NY: ACM. [PDF]

Cadiz, J. J., Fussell, S. R., Kraut, R. E., Lerch, F. J., and Scherlis, W. L (1999). The awareness monitor: A coordination tool for asynchronous, distributed work teams.[PDF]

Fussell, S. R., Kraut, R. E., Lerch, F. J., Sherlis, W. L., McNally, M. and. Cadiz, J. J (1998). Coordination, overload and team performance: Effects of team communication strategies. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, New York: ACM. [PDF]

Kraut, R. & Streeter, L. (1995). Coordination in large scale software development. Communications of the ACM, 38(3), 69-81 [PDF]Galegher, J. & Kraut, R. E. (1994). Computer-mediated communication for intellectual teamwork: An experiment in group writing. Information Systems Research. 5(2), 110-138.

Kraut, R. E., Galegher, J., Fish, R. S., & Chalfonte, B. (1993). Task requirements and media choice in collaborative writing. Human-Computer Interaction. 7(4), 375-408.

Galegher, J. & Kraut, R. (1990). Technology for intellectual teamwork: Perspectives on research and design. In Galegher, J., Kraut, R. E., & Egido, C. (Eds.) Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological bases for cooperative work. Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kraut, R. E., Fish, R., Root, R., & Chalfonte, B. (1990). Informal communication in organizations: Form, function, and technology. In S. Oskamp & S. Spacapan (Eds.), Human reactions to technology: Claremont symposium on applied social psychology (pp. 145-199). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. [PDF]

Visual communication

Gergle, D., Kraut, R. E., & Fussell, S. R. (Under review). Using visual information for grounding and awareness in collaborative tasks. Human Computer Interaction

Gergle, D., Rosé, C. P., & Kraut, R. E. (2007). Modeling the impact of shared visual information on collaborative reference. In CHI 2007: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1543-1552). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Weisz, J. D., Kiesler, S., Zhang, H., Ren, Y., Kraut, R. E., & Konstan, J. A. (2007). Watching together: Integrating text chat with video. In CHI 2007: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors and computing systems (pp. 877-886). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Gergle, D., Kraut, R. E., & Fussell, S. R. (2006). The impact of delayed visual feedback on collaborative performance. In CHI 2006: Proceedings of the ACM conference on human-factors in computing systems (pp. 1303 - 1312). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Gergle, D., Kraut, R. E., & Fussell, S. R. (2005). Language Efficiency and Visual Technology: Minimizing Collaborative Effort with Visual Information. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. [PDF]

Gergle, D. Kraut, R. E., Fussell, S. R. (2004). Communicating with Action. CSCW'04: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work.p. 487-496. NY: ACM Press. [PDF]

Fussell, S. R., Kraut, R. E., Gergle, D., & Setlock, L. D. (2004). Visual cues as evidence of othersí minds in collaborative physical tasks. In B. Malle and S. Hodges (Eds.), Other Minds (pp. 91-105). New York: The Guilford Press. [PDF]

Fussell, S. R., & Kraut, R. E. (2004). Visual copresence and conversational coordination [Commentary on Pickering & Garrod]. Behavior and Brain Sciences. [PDF]

Gergle, D., Millen, D. R., Kraut, R. E., & Fussell, S. R. (2004). Persistence Matters: Making the Most of Chat in Tightly-Coupled Work. CHI'04: Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. [PDF]

Fussell, S. R., Setlock, L. D., & Kraut, R. E. (2003). Effects of Head-Mounted and Scene-Oriented Video Systems on Remote Collaboration on Physical Tasks. CHI'03: Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 513 - 520.[PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Fussell, S. R., & Siegel, J. (2003). Visual information as a conversational resource in collaborative physical tasks. Human-Computer Interaction., 18, 13-49. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Gergle, D., & Fussell, S. R. (2002). The Use of Visual Information in Shared Visual Spaces: Informing the Development of Virtual Co-Presence. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 31-40). New York: ACM. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Fussell, S. R., Brennan, S. E., & Siegel, J. (2002). Understanding effects of proximity on collaboration: Implications for technologies to support remote collaborative work. In P. Hinds & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Distributed work (pp. 137-162). Cambridge, MA, US: MIT Press. [PDF]

Fussell, S. R., Kraut, and Siegel, J. (2000). Coordination of Communication: Effects of Shared Visual Context on Collaborative Work. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, New York: ACM. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Miller, M. D. & Siegel, J. (1996). Collaboration in performance of physical tasks: Effects on outcomes and communication. Proceedings, Computer Supported Cooperative Work Conference, CSCW'96. (pp. 57-66). NY: ACM Press

Kraut, R.E. & Fish, R.S. (1995). Prospects for video telephony. Telecommunications Policy, 19 (9), 699-719.

Fish, R. S., Kraut, R. E., Root, R. W., Rice, R. (1993). Video as a technology for informal communication. Communications of the ACM, 36(1), 48-61. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Fish, R., Root, R., & Chalfonte, B. (1990). Informal communication in organizations: Form, function, and technology. In S. Oskamp and S. Scacapan (Eds.). Human reactions to technology: Claremont symposium on applied social psychology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. [PDF]

Fish, R., Kraut, R. E. & Chalfonte, B. (1990). The VideoWindow system in informal communications. In Proceedings, Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'90). pp 1-11. [PDF]

Computers in organizations

Dabbish, L., & Kraut, R. E. (2006). Email overload at work: An analysis of factors associated with email strain. In Proceedings of the 2006 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work (pp. 431 - 440). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Dabbish, L., Kraut, R., Fussell, S., & Kiesler, S. (2005). Understanding email use: Predicting action on a message. In, CHI 2005, Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 691 - 700). New York: ACM Press. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., Rice, R., Cool, C. & Fish, R. (1998). Varieties of social influence: The role of utility and norms in the success of a communication medium. Organizational Science. 9(4), 437-453 [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & Attewell, P. (1997). Media use and organizational knowledge: Electronic mail in a global corporation. In S. Kiesler (ed.) Research milestones on the information highway. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. (1989). Telecommuting: The trade-offs of home work. Journal of Communication, 39, 19-47.

Kraut, R., Dumais, S. & Koch, S.(1989). Computerization, productivity and quality of employment. Communications of the ACM, 32, 220-238. [PDF]

Kraut, R., Galegher, J., & Egido, C. (1988). Tasks and relationships in scientific research collaborations. Human-Computer Interaction, 3, 31-58.

Kraut, R. (1986). Effects of technological change: Quality of employment. In H. Hartmann & R. E. Kraut & L. Tilly (Eds.), Computer chips and paper clips: Technology and women's employment. (pp. 127-165:). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [PDF]

Interorganizational networks

Steinfield, C., Chan, A., and Kraut, R. (2000). Computer mediated markets: An introduction and preliminary test of market structure impacts. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 5 (3). [HTML]

Chan, A., Steinfield, C. & Kraut, R. (1999, April). Do open networks favor electronic markets? iMP:Information Impacts Magazine. [HTML]

Kraut, R. E., Steinfield, C., Chan, A. C., Butler, B. & Hoag, A. (1999). Coordination and virtualization through electronic networks: Empirical evidence from four industries. Organizational Science. Simultaneously published in Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 1998, 4(3). [HTML]

Steinfield, C., Caby, L., Jaeger, C., & Kraut, R. (1998). Electronic network use and coordination between producers and suppliers: A French and US comparative analysis. In E. Bohlin & S. Levin (Eds.), Telecommunications transformation: Technology, strategy, and policy. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Streeter, L., Kraut, R.E., Lucas, H., & Caby, L. (1996). The impact of national data networks on firm performance and market structure. Communications of the ACM. [PDF]

Lucas, H. C., Levecq, H., Kraut, R. & Streeter, L. (1995, November). France's grass-roots data net. IEEE Spectrum, 71-77.

Steinfield, C., Kraut, R. & Plummer, A. (1995). The impact of interorganizational networks on buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 1(3). (available on-line at http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol1/issue3/steinfld.html)

Person perception & nonverbal behavior

Burke, P., Kraut, R. E., & Dworkin, R. (1984). Traits, consistency, and self-schemas: What do our methods measure? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 568-579. [PDF]

Kraut, R., Lewis, S., Swezey, L. W. (1982). Listener responsiveness and the coordination of conversation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 718-731. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. (1982). Social presence, facial feedback, and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 853-863. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E., and Lewis, S. H. (1982). Person perception and introspection: Awareness of the influences on behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 448-460.[PDF]

Goldenthal, P., Johnston, R., and Kraut, R. (1981). Smiling, appeasement, and the silent bared-teeth display. Ethology and Sociobiology, 2, 127-133. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & Poe, D. (1980). Behavioral roots of person perception: deception judgments by customs inspectors and laymen. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 784-798. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & Johnston, R. E. (1979). Social and emotional messages of smiling: an ethological approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1539-1553. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. (1978). Verbal and nonverbal cues in the perception of lying. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 380-391.{PDF]

Miscellaneous

Hanson, S. J., Kraut, R. E., & Farber, J. M. (1984). Interface design and multivariate analysis of UNIX command use. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, 2, 42-57. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & Price, D. (1976). Machiavellianism in parents and their children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 782-786. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & Lewis, S. H. (1975). Alternate models of family influence on student political ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 791-801. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. (1973). Effects of social labeling on giving to charity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9(6), 551-562. [PDF]

Kraut, R. E. & McConahay, J. B. (1973). How being interviewed affects voting: An experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37, 398-406. [PDF]

Affiliazione

Carnegie Mellon University, Human-Computer Interaction Institute

The Human-Computer Interaction Institute (HCII) is an interdisciplinary community of students and faculty at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). This community is dedicated to research and education in topics related to computer technology in support of human activity and society. Although the HCII...

Co-authors

Burke, Moira

I'm a Ph.D. candidate in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon...

Marlow, Cameron

I am a research scientist and "in-house sociologist" at Facebook. My research focuses...

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